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Anatomy Mnemonics

Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels
Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12
Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10
Vena cava = 8 letters = T8

Meckel's diverticulum details
2 inches long.
2 feet from end of ileum.
2 times more common in men.
2% occurrence in population.
2 types of tissues may be present.
· Note: "di-" means "two", so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos

Diaphragm apertures
"3 holes, each with 3 things going through it":

Aortic hiatus: aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein.
Esophageal hiatus: esophagus, vagal trunks, left gastric vessels.
Caval foramen: inferior vena cava, right phrenic nerve, lymph nodes

Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
There's a Hepatic "H" on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood, it's fortunate that it's the divider for blood halves).

Bowel components
"Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report":
From proximal to distal:
Alternatively: to include the cecum, "Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report".

Duodenum: lengths of parts
"Counting 1 to 4 but staggered":

1st part: 2 inches
2nd part: 3 inches
3rd part: 4 inches
4th part: 1 inch

Bowel components
"Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal":
· 2-4 letters of each component:


Carpal bones of hand
She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her


Insertions on Grater Tuberosity
Lady Between Two Major-

Pectoralis major ,Latismus Dorsi,Teres Major

Cranial Nerves
Ooo Ooo Ooo take touch and feel virgin great vein and heart


Structures under Flexor Retinaculum
Tina Deserves A Nice Husband

From Medial to lateral side:
T- Tibialis posterior
D- Flexor Digitorum Longus
A- post. tibial artery
N- tibial nerve
H- flexor hallucis longus

Branches of IX Nerve
This Could Pull Me To Love

T - Tymphanic N.
C - Br. to Carotid sinus
P - Pharyngeal Br.
M - muscular br. Stylopharyngeus
T - Tonsillar Br.
L - Lesser Petrosal N.

"I Like, People Understand Over My Very Great Inspiration":

Lateral sacral
Pudendal (internal)
Middle rectal
Gluteal (superior and inferior)
Inferior vesicle (uterine in female)

SITS ------ Rotator cuff muscles

T=Teres minor

Chemical Formula for Extra Ocular Muscles


Lateral Rectus 6th Cranial Nerve
Superior Oblique 4th Cranial Nerve
All other Muscles by 3rd Cranial nerve

Structures Passing thru foramen Ovale

MALE = Mandibular n, Accessory meningeal a ,lesser superficial petrosal n, Emissary vein .

Structures Passing thru foramen rotandum

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

Deep Muscles of the Back
“I Love Spaghetti – Some More Ragu”:

Iliocostalis, Longissimis, Spinalis – Semispinalis,
Multifidus, Rotatores

Brachial Plexus
"Really Thirsty? Drink Cold Beer" or “Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers”
Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches

“MARMU” (terminal nerves): Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar

Muscles Inserting into Humerus
"A lady between two majors"

Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of bicipital groove, the teres major attaches to medial lip of bicipital groove, and the latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of bicipital groove. The "ladt" is between two "majors"

Carpal Bones (4 proximal, lateral to medial; 4 distal, lateral to medial)
"Some Lovers/Lions Try Positions That They Can't Handle":

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Capitate, Hamate.
“TrapeziUM at the thUMb"
“TrapeziOID is inSIDE"
“Flexor carpi superficialis splits in two, to permit profundus to pass through”

Radial Nerve Innervations

Brachioradialis, Extensors, Supinator, Triceps.

Median Nerve Innervations

Lateral 2 Lumbricals, Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis.

Transverse Scapular Ligament
Army over (bridge), Navy under (bridge)

Artery goes over and Nerve goes under the ligament

Cubital Fossa (lateral to medial)

Tendon (biceps brachii), Artery (brachial), Nerve (medial)

“PAD”: Palmar (hand) muscles ADduct
“DAB”: Dorsal (hand) muscles ABduct
“All For One And One For All” (medial to lateral):
Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi, Opponens digiti minimi, Adductor policis,
Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Abductor pollicis brevis

Axillary Artery Branches
“Save The Lions And Protect Species”:

Supreme/Superior Thoracic Artery,
Thoracoacromial Artery, Lateral Thoracic, Anterior Circumflex Humeral, Posterior
Circumflex Humeral, Subscapular (thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular)

Thoracoacromial Artery Branches
"CAlifornia Police Department":

Clavicular, Acromial, Pectoral, Deltoid

Pectoral Nerves
"Lateral is less, medial is more"

Lateral pectoral nerve goes through pectoralis major, while medial pectoral nerve goes though both pectoralis major and minor.

Deep Posterior Leg Muscles
“Down The Hatch”:

flexor Digitorum longus, Tibialis posterior, flexor Hallucis longus

Medial Malleolus (anterior to posterior)
“Tom, Dick, And Very Nervous Harry”:

Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus
tendon, posteriotibial Artery, posteriotibial Vein, tibial Nerve, flexor Hallucis longus

SGT FOS (connections to pes anserinus)
Sartorius (Femoral nerve), Gracilis (Obturator nerve), SemiTendinosus (Sciatic nerve)

Femoral Triangle Boundaries
“So I May Always Love Sally”:

Superiorly – Inguinal ligament, Medially – Adductor longus, Laterally – Sartorius

Order of Structures in Femoral Triangle / Groin (lateral to medial)

Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty space, Lymphatics

Leg Anterior Compartment
"The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places":

Tibialis anterior, extensor Hallucis longus,
anterior tibial Artery, deep fibular Nerve, extensor Digitorum longus, Peronius tertius

Cruciate Ligament Paths and Insertions
“PAMs ApPLes”: Posterior [passes] Anteriorly [and inserts] Medially; Anterior [passes]
Posteriorly [and inserts] Laterally

Terrible (Unhappy) Triad Knee Injury (American football injury)

“ATM” for money-maker: Anterior cruciate ligament, Tibial (medial) collateral ligament,
Medial meniscus

Leg Nerves
“FED”: Fibular nerve Everts and Dorsiflexes the foot
“TIP”: Tibial nerve Inverts and Plantarflexes the foot

Plantar region of foot

Layer 1: Abductor Hallucis, Flexor digitorum brevis, Abductor digiti minimi
Layer 2: Two tendons (Flexor Hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus), Two muscles
(lumbricles, quadratus plantae)
Layer 3: Flexor Hallucis brevis, Adductor Hallucis (oblique and transverse heads), Flexor
digiti minimi brevis

Tarsal Tunnel Contents (superior to inferior)
“Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”:

Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus, posterior
tibial Artery, tibial Nerve, flexor Hallucis longus

Inguinal Canal Walls (superior moving around in order to posterior)
"2MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T":

Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles: internal oblique Muscle, transverse abdominus Muscle
Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses: Aponeurosis of external oblique, Aponeurosis of internal
Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: inguinal Ligament, lacunar Ligament
Posterior wall: 2Ts: Transversalis fascia, conjoint Tendon

Tarsal Bones
"Traverse City (is) Noted (for) MIchigan's Lovely Cherries": Talus Calcaneus (new row),
Navicular (new row), Medial Intermediate cuneiforms, Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid

Hip Lateral Rotators (Femur Greater Trochanter Attachments)
“P-GO-GO-Q”: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior
Obturator externus Quadratus femoris

Ribs (superior to inferior), Neck and Sublingual Haitus (medial to lateral)
“VAN”: Vein, Artery, Nerve

Vagal Nerve Path Into Thorax

“Not Left Behind”: Left is anterior (not behind), Right is posterior
Lung Vessels
“RALS”: Right lung artery is Anterior to broncus, Left lung artery is Superior to broncus

Structures Piercing The Diaphragm

“I 8 10 Eggs At 12”: T8 = IVC, T10 = Esophagus, T12 = Aorta

Heart Valves

“RAT, LAMB”: Right Atrial Tricuspid, Left Atrial Mitral (Bicuspid) – or –
“LAB RAT”: Left Atrial Bicuspid, Right Atrial Tricuspid

Spinal Nerves

"C3-4-5 keep the phrenic nerve (or diaphragm) alive"
"C5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven" (long thoracic nerve roots innervate serratus anterior)

Scrotum Layers (superficial to deep)
"Some Dang Englishman Called It The Testis":

Skin, Dartos, External spermatic fascia,
Cremaster, Internal spermatic fascia, Tunica vaginalis,Testis

Innervation of the Penis
"S2,3,4 keep the penis off the floor"

Refers to the innervation of the penis by branches of the pudendal nerve, which is derived
from spinal cord levels S2-4.
Point, Shoot, Score
Parasympathetic for erection, Sympathetic for ejaculation, Somatomotor for ...

Great Vessels

Aortic arch gives off the Brachiocephalic trunk, the left Common carotid, and the left Subclavian artery

“Boston College Stinks”:

right Brachiocephalic trunk, left Common carotid, left
Subclavian artery

Portal Triad

bile Duct, hepatic Artery, portal Vein

Liver Lobes

The Gallbladder is next to the Quadrate lobe

Pathway After Stomach
“Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”:

Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Appendix, Colon (ascending/transverse), Sigmoid colon, Rectum


It measures 1x3x5 inches, weighs 7 ounces and lies between ribs 9-11.

Thoracic Duct
"The duck is between two gooses."

duck = thoracic duct
2 gooses = azyGOUS vein and esophaGOUS

"Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander"

Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum

Nasal Cavity Components

"Never Call Me Needle Nose!":

external Nares, Conchae, Meatuses, internal Nares, Nasopharynx

Scalp Layers (superficial to deep)

Connective tissue,
Loose areolar tissue,

Horner's Syndrome Symptoms
Sunken eyeballs/Symphathetic plexus (cervical) affected, Ptosis, Anhydrosis,Miosis

Bell’s Palsy Symptoms (Unilateral)
BELL’S Palsy”:
Blink reflex abnomal,
Lacrimation (deficient, excess),
Loss of taste,
Sudden onset,
Palsy of VII nerve muscles

Potentially Absent Muscles
“5 P's”:
Palmaris longus [upper limb]
Plantaris [lower limb]
Peroneus tertius [lower limb]
Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall]
Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]

Facial Bones
"Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!":

Vomer, Conchae, Nasal, Maxilla,
Mandible, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal

Deep Tendon Reflexes Root Supply

S1,2 = ankle jerk
L3,4 = knee jerk
C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis
C7,8 = triceps

Supraorbital Fissure
Structures that pass through it:

"Luscious French Tarts Sit Naked In Anticipation Of Sex."

Lacrimal nerve, Frontal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Superior branch of oculomotor nerve, Nasociliary nerve, Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve, Abducent nerve, Ophthalmic veins, Sympathetic nerves

Cranial Bones
"Old People From Texas Eat Spiders"

Occipital, Parietal, Frontal, Temporal, Ethnoid, Sphenoid

Extraocular Muscles
"LR6 - SO4 - rest3" or “(SO4LR6)3”

LR6 Lateral rectus --> VI abducens
SO4 Superior Oblique --> IV Trochlear
Remaining 4 eyeball movers --> III oculomotor

Branches of Suclavian Artery
“VT is Cold”:

Vertebral, Thyrocervical trunk, Costocervical trunk

External Carotid Artery Branches
"Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students” or “Suzy Always Lays Flat On Pillows Making Sweets Terrific":

Superior thyroid, Ascending pharyngeal,
Lingual, Facial, Occipital, Posterior auricular, Maxillary, Superificial Temporal

Internal Jugular Vein (inferior to superior)

"Medical Schools Let Confident People In":

Middle thyroid, Superior thyroid, Lingual, Common facial, Pharyngeal, Inferior petrosal sinus

Facial Nerve Branches
“Please, To Zanzibar By Motor Car” or "Ten Zombies Bought My Car"

Posterior auricular, Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical

Trigeminal Nerve – Where Branches Exit Skull
“Standing Room Only”:

Superior orbital fissure (V1), foramen Rotundum (V2), foramen
Ovale (V3)

Ansa Cervicalis Nerves
“GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene”:

GenioHyoid, ThyroHyoid, Superior mohyoid, SternoThyfoid, SternoHyoid, Inferior omohyoid

Cervical Plexus – Arrangement of Important Nerves
GLAST”: 4 compass points, clockwise from north on the right side of neck:

Great Aucular,
Lesser occipital,
Accessory nerve (pops out between L and S),
Transverse cervical

CN V – V3 Innervated Muscles (Brachial Arch 1 Derivatives)
“M.D. My T.V.”:
Mastication (masseter, temporalis, pterygoids),
Digastric (anterior
tensor Tympani, tensor Veli palatini

V3 Sensory Branches
“Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”:

Buccal, Auriculotemporal, Inferior alveolar,

Facial expressiojn muscles
(Making A Face To Say PSS)

“PSS”: Posterior belly of digastric, Stapedius, Stylohyoid

Lacrimal Nerve Course (Story of 8 L’s)

Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral rectus, then Lets
communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal gland, then Leaves it and supplies
Lateral upper eye Lid

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