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Pathology Mnemonics

MI: post-MI complications
ACT RAPID:
Arrhythmias (SVT, VT, VF)
Congestive cardiac failure
Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
Rupture (ventricle, septum, papillary muscle)
Aneurysm (ventricle)
Pericarditis
Infaction (a second one)
Death/ Dressler's syndrome



Deep venous thrombosis: diagnosis
DVT:
Dilated superficial veins/ Discoloration/ Doppler ultrasound
Venography is gold standard
Tenderness of Thigh and calf



MI: complications
HAS CRAPPED:
Heart failure/ Hypertension
Arrhythmia
Shock
Cardiac Rupture
Aneurysm
Pericarditis
Pulmonary Emboli
DVT



Heart failure causes
"HEART MAy DIE":
Hypertension
Embolism
Anemia
Rheumatic heart disease
Thyrotoxicosis (incl. pregnancy)
Myocardial infarct
Arrythmia
Y
Diet & lifestyle
Infection
Endocarditis


Cardiovascular risk factors (Framingham)
FRAMINGHAM:
Family history
Running (exercise)
Adiposity (obesity)
Marlboros (tobacco)
Insulin resistance (diabetes)
Non-regulated lipids (dyslipidaemia)
Georgie Pie (high fat diet)
Hypertension
Age
Male


Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia PARTNER together:
Quote:
Platelet count low
Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
Renal failure
Temperature rise
Neurological deficits
ER admission (as it is an emergency)
Nephritic syndrome: glomerular diseases commonly presenting as nephritic syndrome
Quote:
PARIS:
Post-streptococcal
Alport's
RPGN
IgA nephropathy
SLE
· Alternatively: PIG ARMS to include Goodpasture's [one cause of RPGN], Membranoproliferative [only sometimes included in the classic nephritic list].
Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. chronic disease
Quote:
TIBC levels at the:
Top=Iron deficiency.
Bottom=Chronic disease
Macrocytic anaemia: differential
Quote:
FAT RBC:
Fetus (pregnancy)
Alcohol
Thyroid disease(ie hypothyroidism)
Reticulocytosis
B12 and folate deficiency
Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease
Hypokalaemia: clinical features
Quote:
TIMID CHIMP:
Tetany
Increases paralytic ileus (aggravates)
Muscle weakness
Increases possibility of hepatic encephalopathy
Digoxin toxicity
Cardiac arrythmias
Hypotonia
Increases P-R interval, T wave and prominent U wave
Muscle cramps
Polyuria
Renal failure (chronic): consequences
Quote:
ABCDEFG:
Anemia
-due to less EPO
Bone alterations
-osteomalacia
-osteoporosis
-von Recklinghausen

Cardiopulmonary
-atherosclerosis
-CHF
-hypertension
-pericarditis

D vitamin loss
Electrolyte imbalance
-sodium loss/gain
-metabolic acidosis
-hyperkalemia

Feverous infections
-due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards
GI disturbances
-haemorrhagic gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
-intractable hiccups
Aneurysm types
Quote:
MAD SCAB:
Mycotic
Atherosclerotic
Dissecting
Syphilitic
Capillary microaneurysm
Arteriovenous fistula
Berry
Necrosis: the 4 types
Code:
"Life Can Get Complicated":
Liquifactive
Coagulation
Gangrene
Caseous
· 'Life' used since necrosis is 'death'.

Turner syndrome: components

Code:
CLOWNS:
Cardiac abnormalities (specifically Coartication)
Lymphoedema
Ovaries underdeveloped (causing sterility, amenorrhea)
Webbed neck
Nipples widely spaced
Short

Fragile-X syndrome: features

Code:
DSM-4: Discontinued chromosome staining
Shows anticipation
Male (male more affected)
Mental retardation (2nd most common genetic cause)
Macrognathia
Macroorchidism
Whipple's disease: full features
Code:
WHIPPLES: Weight loss
Hyperpigmentation of skin
Infection with tropheryma whippelii
PAS positive granules in macrophage
Polyarthritis
Lymphadenopathy
Enteric involvement
Steatorrhea

CREST sydrome: components

Code:
CREST: Calcinosis
Raynaud's phenomena
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangectasia

Edwards' syndrome: characteristics

Code:
EDWARDS: Eighteen (trisomy)
Digit overlapping flexion
Wide head
Absent intellect (mentally retarded)
Rocker-bottom feet
Diseased heart
Small lower jaw

Fragile X syndrome: features

Code:
FEMALES FMR1 gene
Exhibits anticpation
Macro-orchidism
Autism
Long face with large jaw
Everted eyes

Kawasaki disease: features

Disease name: a Kawasaki motorcycle.

Usually young children, epidemic in Japan: Japanese child rides the motorcycle.

Conjunctival, oral erythema: red eyes, mouth.

Fever: thermometer.

Erythema of palms, soles: red palms, soles.

Generalized rash: rash dots.

Cervical lymphadenitis: enlarged cervical nodes with inflammation arrows.

Vasculitis of arteries: inflammation arrows on arteries.

Cardiovascular sequelae [20%]: inflammation arrows on cardiac arteries.

Treat with aspirin: aspirin headlight.




Kawasaki Disease Criteria


"Be careful when riding a Kawasaki motorcycle, you might get CREAMed.

Conjunctivitis (non-exudative)
Rash (polymorphous non-vesicular)
Edema (or erythema of hands or feet)
Adenopathy (cervical, often unilateral)
Mucosal involvement (erythema or fissures or crusting)

To have Kawasaki disease you must have fever for greater than 5 days plus 4 of the above.
Second most common casue of genetic mental retardation.


Kawasaki disease: diagnostic criteria

CHILD:
5 letters=5 days, >5 years old, 5 out 6 criteria for diagnosis:

Conjuctivitis (bilateral)
Hyperthermia (fever) >5 days
Idiopathic polymorphic rash
Lymphoadenopathy (cervical)
Dryness & redness of (i)lips & month (ii)palms & soles [2 separate criteria]

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