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Physiology Mnemonics

Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function
Quote:
"Outer cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the brain":
Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal.
Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.
Pituitary hormones
Quote:
FLAGTOP:
Follicle stimulating hormone
Lutinizing hormone
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Growth hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Oxytocin
Prolactin

Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second 'A' for Anti-diruetic homone/vasopressin
· Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are not well understood.

Adrenal cortex layers and products

Quote:
"Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex":
· Layers:
Glomerulosa
Fasiculata
Reticulata
· Respective products:
Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex hormones
· Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney).

Einthoven's Triangle: organization
Quote:
Corners are at RA (right arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L's at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL is ++].
Sum of number of L's of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle hemisphere contains only positive signs.
· See diagram.


Heart valves: sequence of flow
Quote:
TRIPS BIAS:
TRIcuspid
Pulmonary
Semilunar
BIcuspid
Aortic
Semilunar

Alternatively: "TRIPS, MI ASs!" (uses MItral instead of BIcuspid
Compliance of lungs factors
Quote:
COMPLIANCE:
Collagen deposition (fibrosis)
Ossification of costal cartilages
Major obesity
Pulmonary venous congestion
Lung size
Increased expanding pressure
Age
No surfactant
Chest wall scarring
Emphysema
· All but L/A/E decrease compliance.
Progesterone: actions
Quote:
PROGESTE:
Produce cervical mucous
Relax uterine smooth muscle
Oxycotin sensitivity down
Gonadotropin [FSH, LH] secretions down
Endometrial spiral arteries and secretions up
Sustain pregnancy
Temperature up / Tit development
Excitability of myometrium down
Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms
Quote:
THYROIDISM:
Tremor
Heart rate up
Yawning [fatigability]
Restlessness
Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea
Intolerance to heat
Diarrhea
Irritability
Sweating
Musle wasting & weight loss
Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites
Quote:
"ABC" of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c):
· Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain.
"HbF binds Forcefully":
· HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left.
Stored blood is SOS:
· Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG.
2,3 BPG binding site is BBC:
· BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb.
Myoglobin binding strength is MOM:
· Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.
Oestrogen: functions
Quote:
OESTROGEN SUX:
Organ development (sex organs)
Endocrine: FSH and LH regulation
Secondary sex characteristics development
Tropic for pregnancy
Receptor synthesis (of progesterone, oestrogen, LH)
Osteoporosis decrease (inhibits bone reabsorption)
Granulosa cell development
Endocrine: increases prolactin secretion, but then blocks its effect
Nipple development
Sex drive increase
Uterine contractility increase
oXytocin sensitivity increase
Electrical conductivity of tissues
Quote:
"Be Careful To Shock My Best Nerve":
In order of least conductive to most conductive:
Bones
Cartilage
Tendon
Skin
Muscle
Blood
Nerve
Potassium: causes of potassium leaving cells
A$$E$

Acidosis: H+ ions move in.
Starvation: catabolism of cells.
Stress: catabolism of cells (postoperative).
Exercise: catabolism of cells.
Sodium chloride lost: K+ replaces it and is then excreted.



Pituitary: anterior pituitary products: acidophilic vs basophilic


Quote:
• Acidophilic:
GPA:
Growth hormone
Prolactin
Acidophilic
• Basophilic:
B-FLAT
Basophilic
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH

Erythropoiesis stages


Quote:
"Powerful Businesses Pollute Our Reeling Environment":

Proerythroblast
Basophilic erythroblast
Polychromatic erythroblast
Orthochromatophilic erythroblast
Reticulocyte
Erythrocyte

Neutrophil's 2 distinctive physical features

Quote:
1: There's up to 5 lobes of the nucleus joined by thin appendages. Tie this to it being a neutrophil nucleus by arranging the 5 lobes into a capital N for Neutrophil.
2: the chicken leg (Barr Body) sticking out. Say it out loud: chick-N. The chick-N leg is for Neutrophil.

White blood cell relative concentrations


Quote:
"Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas":

From greatest to least:
Neutrophils (65%)
Lymphocytes (25%)
Monocytes (6%)
Eosinophils (3%)
Basophils (1%)
• Alternatively: "Nine Little Monkeys Eating Bananas".
• Alternatively: "Noone Likes My Educational Background".
• Alternatively: "Never Let Mamma Eat Beans".
• Can remember that Eosinophils is 3%, by the mirror image of E is 3.


Basophil morphology

Quote:
Basophil has Big Blue Balls (granules).
Leukocytes: granulated and agranulated

Quote:
"BEN Loves Money":

• Granulocytes:
Basophil
Eosinophil
Neurophil
• Agranulocytes:
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
• Alternatively: Granpa BEN..." to keep the granulated group straight.

Mast cell primary granule contents

Quote:
"Master, His Hepes Causes Choking & Gagging!":

Mast = Mast cell
His = Histamine
He= Heparin
C = Chymase
Ch = Chemotactic factor for eosinophils
Gag = GAGase

Basophil vs. eosinophils: effect for allergic persons

Quote:
Basophils are "Bad-o-phils" because they contribute to our allergic reactions.
Eosinophils are "Easy-on-me-phils" because they counteract our allergic reactions.
Muscle sarcomere: A vs. I as light or dark

Quote:
There is only one vowel in "dark" and one vowel in "light".
These one vowels match up to their one letter names:
DArk band is the A band.
LIght band is the I band.

Muscle sarcomere: H line vs. Z disc location

Quote:
HAZI (Hazy):
H line is in A-band.
Z disc is in the I band.

Muscle cells: cardiac vs. skeletal's nuclei location/number

Quote:
Nuclei location mirrors where the muscle is located in human body.
Heart muscle is in the middle of body, so heart muscle has nucleus in middle.
Skeletal muscles are at periphery of body, so nuclei are at periphery.
Also, you have 1 heart, so usually only 1 nucleus per heart muscle cell, but have many skeletal muscles, so have many nuclei per long fibre.


Muscle sarcomere bands

Quote:
"Zee Intelligent Animal Has Muscle":
• From the Z disk, working inward, remembering symmetry:
Z I A H M H A I Z.
• Alternatively: "Zoe Is A Horny Momma".

Muscle fiber: types

Quote:
• Type 1:
"1 slow fat red ox":
-slow twitch
-lipid accumulation
-red fibers
-oxidative
• Type 2:
"2 fast skinny white breasts":
-fast twitch
-low lipid
-white fibers, like chicken breasts
Haematology: key numbers

Quote:
3 and 4 are key in in haematology:

1.34 cm3 of oxygen is carried by a gram of hemoglobin.
There's 3.4mg of iron in each gram of hemoglobin.
There's an average of 3.4 lobes per neutrophil.
There's 34mg bilirubin from each gram of hemoglobin.

Macrocytic anemia: causes

Quote:
ABCDEF:

Alcohol + liver disease
B12 deficiency
Compensatory reticulocytosis (blood loss and hemolysis)
Drug (cytotoxic and AZT)/ Dysplasia (marrow problems)
Endocrine (hypothyroidism)
Folate deficieny/ Fetus (pregnancy)
Alkalosis: metabolic changes in alkalosis

Quote:

"Al-K-loss, Al-Ca-loss":


There is loss of K+ (hypokalemia) and Ca++ (hypocalcemia) in state of alkalosis.

Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites

Quote:
"ABC" of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c):

Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain.

"HbF binds Forcefully":

HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left.

Stored blood is SOS:

Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG.

2,3 BPG binding site is BBC:

BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb.

Myoglobin binding strength is MOM:

Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.

Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests

Quote:
"PeT PiTTbull":
PeT: PT is for extrinsic pathway.
PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.

Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function

Quote:
carotid SinuS: measures preSSure.
carotid bO2dy measures O2.

Heart valves: closure sequence

Quote:
"Many Things Are Possible":

Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic
Pituitary: anterior hypophysis hormones

Quote:
FLATPiG:

FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
ignore GH

Electrical conductivity of tissues

Quote:
"Be Careful To Shock My Best Nerve":
In order of least conductive to most conductive:
Bones
Cartilage
Tendon
Skin
Muscle
Blood
Nerve
Compliance of lungs factors

Quote:
COMPLIANCE:

Collagen deposition (fibrosis)
Ossification of costal cartilages
Major obesity
Pulmonary venous congestion
Lung size
Increased expanding pressure
Age
No surfactant
Chest wall scarring
Emphysema
• All but L/A/E decrease compliance.


Alkalosis vs. acidosis: directions of pH and HCO3

Quote:
ROME:

Respiratory= Opposite:
• pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis).
• pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis).
Metabolic= Equal:
• pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis).
• pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis).

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