Chatbox

Search My Blog

Ophthalmology Mnemonics

Post Enucleation Socket Syndrome (PESS)
  • Ptosis
  • Enophthalmos
  • Deep upper Sulcus
  • Slack lower lid
Associations of Vortex Keratopathy: ABCD
  • Arthritis (diclofenac)
  • Breast Cancer (Tamoxifen)
  • Cardiac (amiodarone)
  • Dementia / Depression (Chlorpromazine)
  • Enzyme deficiency (see F)
  • Fabry's Disease


Features of Keratoconus: CONES
  • Central scarring & Fleischer ring
  • Oil drop reflex / Oedema (hydrops)
  • Nerves prominent
  • Excessive bulging of lower lid on downgaze (Munson’s sign)
  • Striae (Vogt’s)

Systemic associations of keratoconus: ABCDEF
  • Atopy
  • Bones (osteogenesis imperfecta)
  • Crouzon’s syndrome
  • Down’s syndrome
  • Ehler’s Danlos syndrome
  • Fingers (Marfan’s)

Stromal dystrophies: Marilyn Monroe Always Gets Her Man in LA City
  • Macular dystrophy
  • Mucopolysaccharide
  • Alcian blue
  • Granular Dystrophy
  • Hyaline material
  • Masson's Trichrome
  • Lattice Dystrophy
  • Amyloid
  • Congo Red

Secondary glaucoma: NIPPLES
  • Neovascular
  • Iridoschisis
  • PXF
  • Pigmentary
  • Lens (phacolytic/phacomorphic)
  • Iridocorneal Endothelial syndromes
  • Seclusio pupillae (in iritis)
  • +trauma (angle recession)



Iridocorneal Endothelial (ICE) Syndrome subtypes: ICE
  • Iris Naevus
  • Chandler Syndrome
  • Essential Iris Atrophy

Systemic Features of Sarcoid: FILLED BAGEL
  • Facial nerve palsy
  • Infiltrates of lung parenchyma, Insufficiency of pituitary
  • Lymphadenopathy (esp lung hilae)
  • Liver & spleen enlargement
  • Elevated ACE & calcium
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy

  • Bone cysts
  • Arthralgia
  • Granulomata of skin
  • Erythema nodosum
  • Lupus pernio

Features of Behcet's Disease: ORAL UPSET
  • Occlusive periphlebitis
  • Retinitis
  • Anterior uveitis
  • Leakage from retinal vessels
  • Ulceration (aphthous/genital)
  • Pustules after skin trauma (Pathergy test)
  • Scratching leaves lines (dermatographism)
  • Erythema nodosum
  • Thrombophlebitis

Clinical features of Reiter’s: FUCKING
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Urethritis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Keratoderma blenorrhagica
  • Inflamed joints
  • Nail dystrophy
  • Gum ulceration

Ophthalmic features of TB: BCG GP
  • Busacca & Koeppe nodules on iris
  • Choroiditis
  • Granulomata in choroid
  • Granulomatous uveitis (with mutton fat KP’s)
  • Periphlebitis

Causes of cataract: DAMAGED
  • Diabetes
  • Atopy
  • Myopia / Myotonic dystrophy
  • Anterior uveitis (chronic)
  • Glaucomflecken
  • Electricity / radiation / trauma
  • Drugs / Dystrophies

Drugs causing cataract: ABCD
  • Amiodarone
  • Busulphan
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Dexamethasone (po/g)

Causes of ectopia lentis: ECTOPIC M&M
  • Eye degeneration (phthisis)
  • Choroidal tumours
  • Trauma
  • Overstretched zonules (buphthalmos / megalocornea)
  • AR with Pupil ectopy
  • Isolated AR
  • Cystathione beta-synthase deficiency (homocystinuria)
  • Marfans
  • Weill-Marchesani syndrome

Features of posterior scleritis: POST SCLER
  • Proptosis
  • Ophthalmoplegia
  • Swelling of disc
  • Thickening of sclera (US/CT) & T sign (fluid in sub-Tenon’s space)
  • Subretinal exudates
  • Choroidal foLds
  • Exudative RD
  • Ring choroidal detachment


Differential Diagnosis of Drusen: AGEING
  • Alports Syndrome
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Exudate (Hard)
  • Inherited (Familial Dominant Drusen)
  • North Carolina Dystrophy
  • starGardts and fundus flavimaculatus



Suspicious Choroidal Naevi: To Find Small Ocular Melanoma
  • Thickness >2mm
  • Fluid (subretinal)
  • Symptoms
  • Orange pigment (lipofuscin)
  • Margin at optic disc

Classification of Retinoblastoma: ABCDE
  • SmAll (<3mm)
  • Bigger (>3mm, macular, subretinal fluid)
  • Contained Seeds
  • Diffuse seeds (>3mm)
  • Extensive (>50% globe, opaque media, NVI)


Features of Weill-Marchesani syndrome: 6 S’s
  • Short
  • Stubby fingers
  • Stupid
  • Spherophakia
  • Subluxed lens
  • Shallow AC (?)

Systemic features of Marfan syndrome: MARFANS
  • Mitral prolapse
  • Aortic dissection
  • Regurgitant aortic valve
  • Fingers long (arachnodactyly)
  • Arm span>height
  • Nasal voice (high arched palate)
  • Sternal excavation

Ocular features of Marfan’s: CLUMPS
  • Cupping (glaucoma)
  • Lattice
  • Upward lens subluxation
  • Myopia
  • Cornea Plana
  • Sclera blue

Things to remember about Lyme Disease: TICK’S CRAP
  • Tick-borne
  • Iritis & intermediate uveitis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Keratitis (subepithelial, punctate)
  • Swelling of disc & Star at macula
  • Cardiac arrythmias (conduction defects)
  • Rash (erythema migrans)
  • Arthritis
  • Palsies

Related Posts by Categories



OLDER POSTS/NEWER/POSTS/HOME OLDER POSTS/NEWER/POSTS/HOME OLDER POSTS/NEWER/POSTS/HOME